By Jesse P. Greenstein and Alexander Haddow
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1940) bring about effects in wool fibers comparable to those of covalent crosslinking. This is probably brought about by the strong secondary forces which would bind these groups to one another or to existing groupings in the fibers. The 2,4dinitrobenzene and long chain alkyl derivatives of ethylene imine are the most potent monofunctional substances which are cytotoxic in the intact animal and it is tempting to draw an analogy between the two systems; it is doubtful if this is permissible in view of the results with compounds described on p.
The ready reaction of the amino groups with nitrogen mustards, epoxides, 42 PETER ALEXANDER and possibly also with the ethyleneimines and mesyloxy compounds is completely contrary to expectation. This anomaly may be due to the fact that these groups are hidden within the protein and sterically inaccessible to the alkylating agents, but this does not seem likely. Alexander et al. (1952~)suggested that the chemical reactivity of the internally neutralized carboxyl and amino groups was not correctly represented by -COO- * .
111. IONIZING RADIATIONS An extensive literature (cf. Haddow, 1953) has accumulated on the ability of x-rays, as well as a-,p-, and y-rays and neutrons to induce tumors. These radiations inactivate enzymes and viruses and have been shown to degrade, to crosslink, and to aggregate macromolecules. , ejection of an electron). There are, however, two distinct mechanisms by which they can modify a macromolecule; if this is irradiated dry or in very concentrated solution, the action is directly on the macromolecule, which is ionized and in this highly reactive form can undergo different secondary reactions.
Advances in Cancer Research, Vol. 2 by Jesse P. Greenstein and Alexander Haddow