By Guoyao Wu
Content material: Discovery and Chemistry of Amino Acids Definition and Nomenclature of AA Discovery of AA Chemical houses of AA Protein Digestion and Absorption of Peptides and Amino Acids type and content material of Protein in Diets Definitions of Digestion and Absorption Protein Digestion and Absorption of Peptides and AA in Monogastric Animals Protein Digestion and Absorption of Peptides and AA in Ruminants Synthesis of Amino Acids Synthesis of AA in Tissues and Cells of Animals together with people normal Pathways for Synthesis of AA in Animal Cells particular Pathways for Synthesis of AA in Animal Cells Pathways for Synthesis of AA in Microorganisms Synthesis of D-AA in Animal Cells and micro organism Conversion of D-AA to l-AA in Animal Cells and micro organism Degradation of Amino Acids common features of AA Degradation in Animal Cells Pathways for Degradation of AA in Animal Cells Catabolism of D-AA in Animal Cells Catabolism of L-AA and D-AA in Microorganisms Synthesis and Catabolism of precise Nitrogenous ingredients from Amino Acids construction of Dipeptides inclusive of Histidine or Its Methylated Derivatives Synthesis and Degradation of GSH construction of Gly-Pro-Hydroxyproline Synthesis and Catabolism of Polyamines Synthesis and usage of Creatine Synthesis and Catabolism of L-Carnitine Synthesis and Catabolism of Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotides Heme Synthesis and Catabolism Synthesis and Catabolism of Histamine Synthesis and Catabolism of Catecholamines, Thyroid Hormones, and Melanin Synthesis and Catabolism of Serotonin and Melatonin Synthesis and Catabolism of D-Glucosamine and Glycosaminoglycans Conjugation items for Excretion Synthesis of Urea and Uric Acid Ammonia creation and Toxicity in Animals Urea creation in Mammals Uric Acid Synthesis Comparisons among Uric Acid and Urea Synthesis Use of Isotopes for learning Amino Acid Metabolism easy options approximately Isotopes Interpretation of information from Isotope Experiments strength Pitfalls of Isotopic reviews Protein Synthesis ancient views of Protein Synthesis Pathway Pathways of Protein Synthesis within the Cytoplasm and Mitochondria Biochemical features and value of Protein Synthesis Measurements of Protein Synthesis Intracellular Protein Degradation old views of Intracellular Protein Degradation Proteases (Peptidases) for Intracellular Protein Degradation Intracellular Proteolytic Pathways features and Physiological value of Intracellular Protein Degradation Measurements of Intracellular Protein Degradation rules of Amino Acid Metabolism uncomplicated thoughts in Metabolism results of dietary and Physiological components on AA Metabolism Physiological features of Amino Acids Roles of AA in Peptide Synthesis Roles of AA for Synthesis of Nonpeptide Molecules Regulatory Roles of AA in foodstuff consumption, Nutrient Metabolism, and Gene Expression Roles for AA within the Immune reaction Use of AA in foodstuff, treatment, and overall healthiness Efficacy and protection of nutritional AA Supplementation Inborn blunders of Amino Acid Metabolism Inherited ailments as a result of issues of AA Metabolism remedy of Inborn error of AA Metabolism nutritional standards of Amino Acids historic views of nutritional AA standards decision of AA specifications evaluate of nutritional Protein caliber Index
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Additional info for Amino acids : biochemistry and nutrition
This chemical reaction was discovered by S. Ruhemann in 1911 and its chemistry is very complex. First, an AA reacts with ninhydrin to form an intermediate amine, the corresponding aldehyde, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. Interestingly, the initial products vary with AA. For example, aspartate and cystine yields 2 mol of CO2, whereas proline and hydroxyproline do not generate ammonia. Second, the intermediate amine reacts with ninhydrin to yield indandione-2-N-2′-indanone enolate (Ruhemann’s purple), hydrindantin [which can be detected by ultraviolet (UV) absorption], and ammonia.
Heintz in 1870, only 20 years after the chemical synthesis of α-alanine. In 1911, the Russian biochemist W. Gulewitsch discovered that β-alanine is a component of carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine) in beef muscle. In subsequent years, two additional β-alanine-containing peptides (anserine and balenine) were discovered in the skeletal muscle and in the brain in a species-dependent manner. β-Alanine has no asymmetric carbon and therefore has no optical activity. 16 Amino Acids: Biochemistry and Nutrition γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) was first synthesized in 1883.
F. J. Pelouze in 1833. In 1838, J. Liebig obtained aspartate by hydrolyzing asparagine with potassium hydroxide. The first chemical synthesis of aspartate was accomplished by V. Dessaignes in 1850 by heating the ammonium salts of malic, maleic, and fumaric acids at 160–200°C. The presence of aspartate in plant and animal proteins was first identified in 1868 and 1869, respectively. Derivatives of aspartate such as N-acetyl-laspartate and phosphoaspartate are present in animal tissues (including brain, liver, kidney, and muscle).
Amino acids : biochemistry and nutrition by Guoyao Wu