By Michael Balls, James Bridges, Jacqueline Southee
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Extra resources for Animals and Alternatives in Toxicology: Present Status and Future Prospects
Eventually, if the new tests proved satisfactory, the guidelines could be firmed up to give a clearer data requirement. The two ECETOC monographs represent definitive surveys of the status of skin and eye irritancy testing and could serve as reference documents in dialogue between European regulatory authorities and representatives of industry on the place of alternatives in irritancy testing. CONCLUSIONS It is enlightening to report that in contrast to the misleading comment which still at times surrounds skin and eye testing, particularly the latter, tangible and significant progress has been made in reducing in vivo testing, particularly in the field of cosmetics.
In terms of chemical phototoxicity testing, again, no specific recommendations exist, although moves are underway to include them in OECD guidelines currently being drafted. In vivo testing has involved a variety of species including mice, rats, rabbits, guinea-pigs and miniature swine (16). Generally the approach is to estimate the degree of compound photo-induced epidermal erythema (17, 18), oedema by measuring mouse ear thickness (19) or tail swelling (20). At present, phototoxicity testing is not usually a regular component of safety evaluation programmes.
Furthermore, ethically, it could be said that the intended risk to the animals would only be that which is acceptable to man-no more, no less. g. detergents in cosmetics formulations. It is in these general assessment areas that the use of existing information and the employment of in vitro prescreening tests can help to reduce both the amount of animal testing and the likelihood of severe responses occurring in vivo. 30 Dennis W. Swanston, J. Gordon Black, Paul A. Duffy et al. Current data and physicochemical prediction The greatest advance would be to remove the need to test altogether.
Animals and Alternatives in Toxicology: Present Status and Future Prospects by Michael Balls, James Bridges, Jacqueline Southee