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By R. Gilles (Eds.)

ISBN-10: 0080249388

ISBN-13: 9780080249384

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Additional resources for Animals and Environmental Fitness: Physiological and Biochemical Aspects of Adaptation and Ecology. Invited Lectures

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Within these zones, individual animals can look like either of the two in- 17 volved subspecies, or they can share certain characteristics of both races. TAXONOMIC ISSUES At the beginning of this project, we had to make some decisions about the scientific names of several species of Texas snakes whose taxonomic status is in dispute. Most involve the classification of subspecies within a single species, whose individual geographic ranges apparently do not converge and whose evolutionary pathways seem to be in isolation from those of their closest relatives.

Scales beneath tail in a single row (a) or a double row (b). Figure I I. Body scales keeled (a) or smooth (b). tral contacts frontal; body with small and usually obscure transverse brownish bands or blotches; ground color grayish brown to pale brown; head seldom has bands; adults usually less than 12 inches but may reach 19 inches Mexican hook-nosed snake, Ficimia streckeri 20. Body scales with keels (Fig. na) 21 Body scales smooth (Fig. nb) 22 21. Body scales in 15 rows; belly yellowish, dorsal color tan or reddish tan, faint yellowish transverse band behind head, head usually dark reddish brown to dark brown,- usually a white spot on the edge of the upper lip below and behind the eye,- adults usually 10 inches but may reach 16 inches Red-bellied snake (Florida), Storeria occipitomaculata Body scales in 17 rows; belly grayish; dorsal body with tan or pale tan middorsal longitudinal stripe from rear of head to tail, with a series of small black or dark brown dots along each side of stripe; rear of head with a pair of dark spots; adults usually about 12 inches in length but occasionally 19 inches Brown snake (marsh, Texas), Storeria dekayi 22.

Paucimaculata). CHECKLIST OF TEXAS SNAKES FAMILY LEPTOTYPHLOPIDAE Plains blind snake Leptotyphlops dulcis dulcis (Baird and Girard) 1853 New Mexico blind snake Leptotyphlops dulcis dissectus (Cope) 1896 Trans-Pecos blind snake Leptotyphlops humilis segregus Klauber 1939 FAMILY COLUBRIDAE Kansas glossy snake Arizona elegans elegans Kennicott 1859 Texas glossy snake Arizona elegans arenicola Dixon 1960 Painted Desert glossy snake Arizona elegans philipi Klauber 1946 Trans-Pecos rat snake Bogertophis subocularis subocularis (Brown) 1901 Western worm snake Carphophis vermis (Kennicott) 1859 Northern scarlet snake Cemophora coccinea copei fan 1863 Texas scarlet snake Cemophora coccinea linen Williams, Brown, and Wilson 1966 Buttermilk racer Coluber constrictor anthicus Cope 1862 Tan racer Coluber constrictor etheridgei Wilson 1970 Eastern yellow-bellied racer Coluber constrictor flaviventris Say 1823 Mexican racer Coluber constrictor oaxaca Jan 1863 Southern black racer Coluber constrictor priapus Dunn and Wood 1939 Black-striped snake Coniophanes imperialis imperialis (Kennicott) 1859 Prairie ring-necked snake Diadophis punctatus arnyi Kennicott 1858 Regal ring-necked snake Diadophis punctatus regalis Baird and Girard 1853 Mississippi ring-necked snake Diadophis punctatus stictogenys Cope 1860 Texas indigo snake Drymarchon corais erebennus (Cope) 1860 22 Checklist of Texas Snakes Speckled racer Drymobius margaritiferus margaritiferus (Schlegel) 1837 Baird's rat snake Elaphe bairdi (Yarrow) 1880 Corn snake Elaphe guttata guttata (Linnaeus) 1766 Great Plains rat snake Elaphe guttata emoryi Baird and Girard 1853 Southwestern rat snake Elaphe guttata meahllmorum Smith, f £%izar, Staley, andTepedelen 1994 Texas rat snake Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri (Baird and Girard) 1853 Western mud snake Paranoia abacura reinwardti (Schlegel) 1837 Mexican hook-nosed snake Ficimia streckeri Taylor 1931 Western hook-nosed snake Gyalopion canum Cope 1860 Plains hog-nosed snake Heterodon nasicus nasicus Baird and Girard 1852 Dusty hog-nosed snake Heterodon nasicus gloydi Edgren 1952 Mexican hog-nosed snake Heterodon nasicus kennerlyi Kennicott 1860 Eastern hog-nosed snake Heterodon platirhinos Latreille 1802 Texas night snake Hypsiglena torquata jani Duges 1866 Gray-banded king snake Lampropeltis alterna (Brown) 1902 Prairie king snake Lampropeltis calligaster calligaster (Harlan) 1827 Speckled king snake Lampropeltis getula holbrooki Stejneger 1902 Desert king snake Lampropeltis getula splendida (Baird and Girard) 1853 Louisiana milk snake Lampropeltis triangulum amaura Cope 1860 Mexican milk snake Lampropeltis triangulum annulata Kennicott 1860 New Mexico milk snake Lampropeltis triangulum celaenops Stejneger 1903 Central Plains milk snake Lampropeltis triangulum gentilis (Baird and Girard) 1853 Northern cat- eyed snake Leptodeira septentrionalis septentrionalis (Kennicott) 1859 Western smooth green snake Liochlorophis vernalis blanchardi Grobman 1941 Eastern coachwhip Masticophis flagellum flagellum (Shaw) 1802 Western coachwhip Masticophis flagellum testaceus Say 1823 Schott's whipsnake Masticophis schotti schotti Baird and Girard 1853 Ruthven's whipsnake Masticophis schotti ruthveni Ortenburger 1923 Central Texas whipsnake Masticophis taeniatus girardi Stejneger and Barbour 1917 Gulf salt marsh snake Nerodia clarki clarki (Baird and Girard) 1853 Mississippi green water snake Nerodia cyclopion (Dumeril, Bibron, and Dumeril) 1854 Yellow-bellied water snake Nerodia erythrogaster flavigaster (Conant) 1949 Blotched water snake Nerodia erythrogaster transversa (Hallowell) 1852 Broad-banded water snake Nerodia fasciata confluens (Blanchard) 19^3 Florida water snake Nerodia fasciata pictiventris (Cope) 1895 Brazos water snake Nerodia harteri harteri (Trapido) 1941 Concho water snake Nerodia harteri paucimaculata (Tinkle and Conant) 1961 Diamond-backed water snake Nerodia rhombifer rhombifer (Hallowell) 1852 CHECKLIST OF TEXAS SNAKES Midland water snake Nerodia sipedon pleuralis (Cope) 1892 Rough green snake Opheodrys aestivus (Linnaeus) 1766 Sonoran gopher snake Pituophis catenifer afftnis Hallowell 1852 Bull snake Pituophis catenifer sayi (Schlegel) 1837 Louisiana pine snake Pituophis ruthveni Stull 1929 Graham's crayfish snake Regina grahami Baird and Girard 1853 Gulf crayfish snake Regina rigida sinicola (Huheey) 1959 Texas long-nosed snake Rhinocheilus lecontei tessellatus Garman 1883 Big Bend patch-nosed snake Salvadora deserticola Schmidt 1940 Mountain patch-nosed snake Salvadora grahamiae grahamiae Baird and Girard 1853 Texas patch-nosed snake Salvadora grahamiae lineata Schmidt 1940 Great Plains ground snake Sonora semiannulata semiannulata Baird and Girard 1853 Taylor's ground snake Sonora semiannulata taylori (Boulenger) 1894 Marsh brown snake Storeria dekayi limnetes Anderson 1961 Texas brown snake Storeria dekayi texana Trapido 1944 Florida red-bellied snake Storeria occipitomaculata obscura Trapido 1944 Mexican black-headed snake Tantilla atriceps (Gunther) 1895 Trans-Pecos black-headed snake Tantilla cucullata Minton 1956 Flat-headed snake Tantilla gracilis Baird and Girard 1853 FAMILY ELAPIDAE Texas coral snake Micrurus fulvius tener (Baird and Girard) 1853 23 Southwestern black-headed snake Tantilla hobartsmithi Taylor 1937 Plains black-headed snake Tantilla nigriceps Kennicott 1860 Western black-necked garter snake Thamnophis cyrtopsis cyrtopsis (Kennicott) 1860 Eastern black-necked garter snake Thamnophis cyrtopsis ocellatus (Cope) 1880 Checkered garter snake Thamnophis marcianus marcianus (Baird and Girard) 1853 Western ribbon snake Thamnophis proximus proximus (Say) 1823 Arid land ribbon snake Thamnophis proximus diabolicus Rossman 1963 Gulf coast ribbon snake Thamnophis proximus orarius Rossman 1963 Red-striped ribbon snake Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus Rossman 1963 Western plains garter snake Thamnophis radix haydeni (Kennicott) 1860 Eastern garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis (Linnaeus) 1758 Texas garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis annectens Brown 1950 Red-sided garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis (Say) 1823 Texas lyre snake Trimorphodon lambda vilkinsoni Cope 1886 Lined snake Tropidoclonion lineatum (Hallowell) 1856 Rough earth snake Virginia striatula (Linnaeus) 1766 Western earth snake Virginia valeriae elegans Kennicott 1859 24 Checklist of Texas Snakes FAMILY VIPERIDAE Southern copperhead Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix (Linnaeus) 1766 Broad-banded copperhead Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus Gloyd and Conant 1934 Trans-Pecos copperhead Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster Gloyd and Conant 1943 Western cottonmouth Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma (Troost) 1836 Western diamond-backed rattlesnake Crotalus atrox Baird and Girard 1853 Canebrake rattlesnake Crotalus horridus atricaudatus Latreille 1802 Mottled rock rattlesnake Crotalus lepidus lepidus (Kennicott) 1861 Banded rock rattlesnake Crotalus lepidus klauberi Gloyd 1936 Northern black-tailed rattlesnake Crotalus molossus molossus Baird and Girard 1853 Mojave rattlesnake Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Kennicott) 1861 Prairie rattlesnake Crotalus viridis viridis (Rafinesque) 1818 Desert massasauga Sistrurus catenatus edwardsi (Baird and Girard) 1853 Western massasauga Sistrurus catenatus tergeminus (Say) 1823 Western pygmy rattlesnake Sistrurus miliarius streckeri Gloyd 1935 KEY TO THE SPECIES OF TEXAS SNAKES This key is written for persons not familiar with identification keys.

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Animals and Environmental Fitness: Physiological and Biochemical Aspects of Adaptation and Ecology. Invited Lectures by R. Gilles (Eds.)

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